In 2017, a California federal district held in Winding Creek v. CPUC that the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) had two PURPA problems: 1) its capped PURPA program entitled “Re-MAT” did not adopt an avoided-cost price because of its adjustment mechanism scheme; and 2) the CPUC’s standard PURPA contract (Standard Contract) failed to properly implement PURPA because the contract had only one, not two, pricing options. As a result, the court found that the cap on the Re-MAT program was improper. The district court found that the Standard Contract would need to provide a fixed price at the time of contracting and at delivery to satisfy FERC’s PURPA regulations. The district court also held that it was not its job to fix the Re-MAT pricing problem by setting an avoided cost price or requiring the purchasing utility to provide a contract at the “unadjusted” price demanded by the QF. Both sides appealed.
Yesterday, the Ninth Circuit ruled that the district court was correct as to all its findings. Perhaps of most importance, the Ninth Circuit concluded that a formula rate could not satisfy the requirement of 18 C.F.R. § 292.304(d)(2)(ii) of a price set at the time of contracting (i.e., when a legally enforceable obligation (LEO) is formed). It stated, that the “Standard Contract provides only one formula for calculating avoided cost, and that formula relies on variables that are unknown at the time of contracting.” Indeed, it found this “infirmity is plain from the face of the regulations, so we do not defer to FERC’s unreasoned conclusion to the contrary.”